Here is a glossary of leather terms thanks to Jaymar Furniture. Many of the terms included go beyond the needs of most leather consumers. but if you want to go deeper into understanding the leather manufacuring process, these terms will help you. They have also provided many of the pictures of the beautiful leather furniture found on this site. Click the image below to check out their great line of leather furniture.
Aniline Dyed: The process of colouring leathers throughout using non-toxic aniline dyes. The dye is transparent and therefore allows all of nature's signatures to remain visible.
Base Coat: Colour that is applied to a compatible crust colour to achieve the final colour of protected aniline.
Crocking: Transferring of colour or finish from leather to other materials, caused by rubbing or abrasion.
Drum Dyed: A dyeing process in which leather is immersed in dye and tumbled in a rotating drum, allowing maximum dye penetration.
Embossing: A process of altering the natural grain of the leather by using etching, engraving or electrotyped plates or rollers, creating a very uniform grain pattern. Embossing may be done to disguise defects or to create exciting designs.
Finishings: Any further steps taken after the dyeing treatment, such as
rolling, pigmented spraying, lacquering, antiquing, waxing, buffing,
embossing, glazing, waterproofing, or flameproofing in order to provide more abrasion and stain resistance and/or a more even surface coloration.
Full Grain: Any leather in which only the hair has been removed while the grain retains its original state. Natural markings are left intact and
present the character and appeal of a very unique leather.
Grain: The natural or embossed pattern and texture of a hide's surface.
GTX: A chemical with water-and stain-resistant properties similar to
Scotchgard. GTX is added in the drum during the dyeing process.
Hand: Term used to describe the softness or feel of leather.
Hand-Antiqued: The hand application of a darker colour over a
lighter colour creating a dramatic highlight.
Hide: The skin of an animal.
Leather: The generic term for all hides that have been tanned to a non-perishable state.
Liming: The chemical process of removing the hair from the raw hide.
Machine-Antiqued: The machine application of a darker colour over a lighter colour, creating a dramatic highlight.
Milling: Process in which hides are tumbled in a drum to soften the hand or enhance the grain.
Naked Leather: "Pure aniline".
Nature's Signatures: Increasingly popular naturally occurring characteristics on leather; these include (but are not limited to) insect bites and stings, fat wrinkles, healed barbed wire cuts and scrapes, and other markings that give each hide its own unique traits.
Nubuk Aniline: A top grain leather that has a slight nap effect produced by removal of the epidermis, or hair cell layer.
Patina: A lustre that develops on pure anilines and nubuks over time and with use.
Pigment Finish: A process of colouring and coating the leather surface with colorants.
Polishing: Removal of the grain, scars and blemishes from a hide.
Protected Aniline: Leather that has been aniline dyed and then slightly pigmented to ensure colour consistency and resistance to liquids (also referred to as a semi-aniline).
Pull-Up: Full grain aniline leather that derives its colour from dyes.
When leather is pulled, the oils or the waxes in the leather cause the
colour to dissipate and become lighter in the areas, which are pulled tight.
Pure Aniline: Any leather that receives its entire colour from aniline dyes only, and has no topical applications. Nature's signatures are visible and are to be considered a cherished and unique part of each individual hide.
Sauvage: A two-tone effect that adds depth and character to the leather.
Semi-Aniline: "Protected aniline."
Split: During the tanning process, a hide is split into layers and the
underneath portion is referred to as a split. Compared to the durable top grain, this is inferior leather. It is often used in the garment industry and is known as suede.
Suede: The underneath portion of a hide after the splitting process.
Compared to the durable top grain, this is inferior leather. It is often
used in the garment industry.
Tanning: The process of converting rawhides into a non-perishable state.
Top Coat: Synthetic transparent polyurethane resins applied as a clear protective coating to make leather more resistant to wear and liquids. Finishes may range from a high gloss to a matte depending on the type of leather.
Top Grain: During the tanning process, a hide is split into layers and the top layer is referred to as the top grain. This is the most durable part of a leather hide due to the strength of the fibres.
Yield: The amount of useable area after all wastes and imperfections have been discarded.